AI in Emergency Medicine: Evaluating ChatGPT and Google Bard

The integration of artificial intelligence (AI) into healthcare has changed the game, especially in emergency medicine. A recent study paper titled “Performance of Google Bard and ChatGPT in triaging mass casualty incidents” comparing the performance of AI models ChatGPT and Google Bard in mass casualty incident (MCI) triage presents new insights into the capabilities and limitations of these technologies.

The research approach

Conducted by a team led by Rick Kye Gan and colleagues, the study used a cross-sectional analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of ChatGPT and Google Bard against medical students in implementing the START triage method. The START (Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment) method is a widely recognized approach in MCI. The analysis included a questionnaire with 15 different MCI scenarios assessing triage accuracy in categories such as Walking Wounded, Breathing, Perfusion and Mental Status.

Key findings

The results were telling. Google Bard demonstrated a remarkable 60% accuracy on its triage tasks, close to the 64.3% accuracy achieved by medical students in a previous study. In contrast, ChatGPT showed a lower accuracy rate of 26.67%, with a significant oversort rate. This over-sorting indicates the assignment of higher levels of care than necessary, which can be resource-intensive in real-world scenarios.

Results analysis

The results of the study suggest that although AI technologies such as ChatGPT and Google Bard hold enormous potential in emergency medicine, they are not without limitations. For example, ChatGPT’s performance in the Breathing category indicates a need for further development, particularly in the recognition of medical abbreviations.

Potential of AI in Medicine

Despite these limitations, the role of AI in medicine is multifaceted. AI chatbots, including ChatGPT and Google Bard, can revolutionize emergency medicine and public health. They can support disease surveillance, manage resource allocation, and provide evidence-based recommendations to health care providers. This can significantly improve patient outcomes and ensure optimal use of resources during emergencies.

Concerns and future directions

The study also highlights important concerns about AI in healthcare, such as privacy, security and the need for human oversight. AI chatbots, while effective, may lack the nuances of human judgment and empathy that make human supervision indispensable.


Google Bard’s superior performance over ChatGPT in this study is a significant finding. He points to rapid advances in artificial intelligence technology and its potential applications in real-world, high-pressure scenarios such as mass casualty incidents. However, it also highlights the need for continuous development, ethical considerations and the indispensable role of human expertise in the evolving landscape of AI in healthcare.

This study opens avenues to further explore the applicability of AI tools in different MCI modalities. Understanding and improving the capabilities of AI in emergency medicine will be critical to future technological advancements and better preparedness for mass casualty incidents.

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