Enhancing AI Recommendations: A Study on ChatGPT’s Conversational Refinement and Bias Mitigation

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Mastering rapid design for interactions with Chatbot AIs, including ChatGPT and Character AI, is critical to achieving accurate and relevant results. Recently, a paper titled “ChatGPT for Conversational Recommendations: Refinement of Recommendations through Feedback Reprompting” by Kyle Dylan Spurlock, Cagla Acun, and Esin Saka presents an in-depth analysis of improving recommendation systems using large language models (LLMs) such as ChatGPT. It focuses on the performance of ChatGPT as a leading chat recommendation system and explores strategies to improve recommendation relevance and mitigate popularity bias.

The study also delves into the current state of automated recommendation systems, highlighting the limitations of existing models due to the lack of direct interaction with the user and the superficial nature of their data interpretation. It highlights how LLM conversational capabilities like ChatGPT can redefine user interaction with AI systems, making them more intuitive and user-friendly.


The methodology is comprehensive and multifaceted:

Data source: The HetRec2011 dataset is used, an extension of the MovieLens10M dataset with additional movie information from IMDB and Rotten Tomatoes.

Content Analysis: Different levels of movie embed content, ranging from basic information to detailed Wikipedia data, are created to analyze the impact of content depth on recommendation relevance.

User and Item Selection: The study used a small, representative user sample to minimize bias and ensure reproducibility​​.

Suggestion generation: Various suggestion strategies, including zero-shot, one-shot, and Chain-of-Thought (CoT), are used to guide ChatGPT in generating recommendations​​.

Relevance Match: The relevance of recommendations to user preferences is a key focus, with feedback used to refine ChatGPT​​ results.

Evaluation: The study used various metrics, such as precision, nDCG and MAP, to evaluate the quality of recommendations.


The paper conducts experiments to answer three research questions:

Impact of conversation on referral: Analyzing how ChatGPT’s conversational capability affects referral performance.

Performance as a Top-n Recommender: Comparing the performance of ChatGPT with baseline models in typical recommendation scenarios.

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Popularity Bias in Recommendations: A Study of ChatGPT’s Tendency to Popularity Bias and Strategies to Mitigate It.

Key conclusions and implications

The study highlights several key findings:

Impact of content depth: Introducing more content into embeddings improves the model’s resolution, although there is a limit to this improvement​​.

ChatGPT vs. Baseline Models: ChatGPT performs comparably to traditional recommender systems, highlighting its robust domain knowledge on zero-hit tasks​​.

Managing Popularity Bias: Modifying search prompts to less popular recommendations significantly improves novelty, indicating a strategy to counter popularity bias. However, this approach involves a trade-off between novelty and performance.


The paper presents a promising direction for incorporating conversational AI, such as ChatGPT, into recommendation systems. By refining recommendations through re-prompts and feedback, it demonstrates significant advances over traditional models, particularly in terms of user engagement and addressing popularity bias. This research contributes to the continued development of more intuitive, user-centric AI recommendation systems.

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